Randi Karlsen, Anders Andersen, Tools for image annotation: Using context-awareness, NFC and image clustering, NIK: Norsk Informatikkonferanse, 2014, ISSN 1892-0713.
Annotation of images is crucial for enabling keyword based image search. However, the enormous amount of available digital photos makes manual annotation impractical, and requires methods for automatic image annotation. This paper describes two complementary approaches to automatic annotation of images depicting some public attraction. The LoTagr system provides annotation information for already captured, geo-positioned images, by selecting nearby, previously tagged images from a source image collection, and subsequently collect the most frequently used tags from these images. The NfcAnnotate system enables annotation at image capture time, by using NFC (Near Field Communication) and NFC information tags provided at the site of the attraction. NfcAnnotate enables clustering of topically related images, which makes it possible annotate a set of images in one annotation operation. In cases when NFC information tags are not available, NfcAnnotate image clustering can be combined with LoTagr to conveniently annotate every image in the cluster in a single operation.