Anders Andersen, Randi Karlsen, Weihai Yu, Green transportation choices with IoT and smart nudging, Handbook of Smart Cities: Software Services and Cyber Infrastructure, Springer, 2018, ISBN 978-3-319-97270-1.
Transportation and traffic have become a serious issue around the world. Congestion has severe negative consequences for public health, productivity and the environment, and less reliance on private cars can help solve many interconnected problems in these areas. Increased use of green transportation choices can also limit the need for expensive investment in infrastructure and minimize unpopular traffic regulations. One approach to achieve this is to introduce new kinds of services that provide members of the community with situational aware information of different forms. This includes information to travellers about which environmentally friendly transportation options that are available and match their needs on any given occasion, and how they can find and use these options. Thus, we should motivate people to make green transportation choices and provide them with situationally relevant details about when and how to do so. Nudging is a term from economics and political theory for influencing decisions and behaviour using suggestions, positive reinforcement and other non-coercive means, so as to achieve socially desirable outcomes. In our context, the people to influence are members of a community using various modes of transportation. The main components in such an approach are (i) Sense, (ii) Analyse and (iii) Inform and Nudge. With the combination of Sense, Analyse and Inform and Nudge we can provide smart nudging.